Gorakhpur city, (260 41' to 260 50' North latitude and 830 20' to 830 27' East longitude) is situated in the Terai belt of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Due to pleasant climate , it was considered a mini hill station by British. In term of population growth , it is at present the second largest city, after Varanasi, in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Geographically the city is situated on the left bank of river Rapti at the confluence of the river Rapti and Rohin. After the 1970s with the establishment of various institutions and organization and other infrastructural developments , major changes have taken place in every sectors. It is a major center of socio-economic commercial, cultural and administrative activities of north eastern U.P. To the north -east of the city a large lake named Ramgarh Tal lies and on the east lies a forest tract of kushmi. City is 815 km. north-west from Kolkatta, 272 km. north-east from Allahabad, 232 km north from Varanasi, 262 km east from Lucknow. The roads radiate from the city to Nautanwa and Sonauli, Maharajganj and Thuthibari (both up to Indo- Nepal border) Kasia (Kushinagar), Gopalganj to Assam in the south-east, to Deoria Siwan- Chapra- Kolkatta; Barhalganj –Allahabad/Varanasi in the south and Lucknow, Kanpur ,Delhi in the west. The city is well connected by road and railway from the major cities of the country where as Delhi is connected with air routes. Delhi-Kanpur-Gorakhpur- Barauni- Guwahati/Kolkatta main line of northern, north east, central north east, and north east frontier railway traverse the city from east to west with Domingarh–Gorakhpur- Gorakhpur cantt. Two branch lines run north ward to Nautanwa and Gonda while other one broad gauge runs north Bihar. The total area of the city is 136.85 km2 . Administratively, with the extension of the area. the numbers of the wards are also continuously increasing from 15 in 1961, 17 in 1981, 30 in 1991, 60 in 1995 and now the city has been divided into 70 wards.
The topography of the city is largely plain with a marginal gradient/ slope from north to south. The slope decreases from the middle of the city to both east and westwards. The height of the city ranges from 72 meters in south and south west to 95 meters in North above the mean sea level. In the north newly developed part of the city has elevation more than 85 mts and decreases toward south. The least elevation is in the southern part of the city which is along the Ramgarh Tal and Hobert embankment and NH 28. Most of the area of northern parts has the elevation between 80 to 85 mts. There are numerous water bodies within the city and the biggest Ramgarh tal is situated in the south eastern part of the city. The elevation is much irregular and gradients are also very uneven. But there are three north-south elongated low lying land which is deeper having the height less than 80 mts. It seems that these are the older beds of Rapti in west, Gorghoia Nala in east and other channel between them. The areas along river Rohin and Gordhoianala have the height between 75 to 80 mts. The height from eastern bank of Ramgarh Tal to extreme east, up to city boundary, is continuously increasing. The southern part of the city has comparatively lesser height which ranges between 75 to 80 mts. It is lowest part of the city. The Ramgarh Tal and its water covered area has the height around 70 mts. Thus, the southern part from Ramgarh Tal to west ward is a low-lying area where height increases from east to west.
Hence according to the height, the city can be divided in two parts- first- northern half part of the city which has more than 79 meters height while second -half southern part has the elevation between 74 to 79 mts., except higher patches of area of civil lines and Dharmshal bazar around railway station. The area along Gordhoian nala to Ramgarh Tal and extreme southern part between river Rapti to Ramgarh Tal has lowest elevation.
The climate of the city is moderate. Historically, Gorakhpur and its surrounding areas had a pleasant climate. However, in the resent past few years there has been a rapid alteration and unexpected changes in the climate. The annual average temperature is 25.300c. But during the summer months, the mean maximum temperature shoots up to 37.500c whereas annual average minimum temperature is 19.340 c. The city receives an annual average rainfall about 123 cm. In term of persistent of weather condition the city experience the four seasons.
The cold season starts from mid November to February is followed by the summer season, which generally commence from March and remain up to mid June. The period from Mid June to end of September is the south west monsoon season and October to mid November the post Monsoon season.
From the mid of November, there is a rapid fall in temperature and January is coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at 22.680 c and mean daily minimum temperature at 9.15º C . During summer, highest mean maximum temperature reaches to 42oC while during winter season the lowest mean minimum temperature drop down to 6-7oC . Ever recorded Maximum temperature over this place is 49.4o C on 15th May 1962 and ever recorded minimum temperature is -1.0o C on 09th Jan 2013. During last couple of years, the city has experienced significant ups and downs in temperature as well as rainfall.
The Year 1989 and 2008 was the heaviest rainfall year amongst 112 years i.e. 2087 and 1991 mm respectively. But one remarkable phenomena is noted in number of rainy days. In last few years the days has shown decreasing trend. Mean Maximum temperature shows significant rising trend in monsoon and post monsoon season during the last 110 years (1901-2010). The mean minimum temperature too shows significant rising trend during post monsoon season while during monsoon season it shows the decline trend. The annual minimum and maximum temperature also shows insignificant increasing trend 0.023o C and 0.008o C per year respectively during the last century. This rising future of both Maximum and Minimum temperature ultimately increases the mean heating of the Atmosphere and favours of clouds formation and eventually increases the rainfall activity.